Saturday, March 21, 2020
Face it: Youve been trying this whole freelance writing thing for three months, and you havent landed a freelance writing client. Sure, youve gotten a project here and there, but nothing recurring and nothing more than a few dollars. You have no clue why you arent landing a client. Youre pitching, looking for freelance writing jobs and nothing. Not one stinking client to show for it. What gives? Why is everyone else Ã¢â¬â you know, the other successful freelance writers Ã¢â¬â able to write for a living? Whats so different between them and you? Ive been freelance writing for over two years, and I know what makes a successful freelance writer. Someone that doesnt need to hustle 24 hours a day. Someone who gets work handed to them and one that doesnt have to worry when they get paid next. Ive taught many writers to achieve this success in less time. I can tell with the first strategy call or email whether they will be successful or not. Here are 18 reasons why youre not landing any gigs and what you can do about it. 1. Your Pitch Looks Like it Came from a Template I know. Ive mentioned on this blog quite a few times that its okay to have a template for your pitch. It helps maximize your time when youre doing this as a side hustle. Let me preface this by saying it is okay to have a template for your pitches, just dont make it appear like its a cookie-cutter template. The best way to avoid this is by researching the prospect you want to pitch to. Look online and visit their website. Read their About page and learn about their brand and message. You can infuse that in your pitch by using the same jargon or vocabulary you see on their site. You can also have a few different pitch templates so you can rotate them when youre pitching. 2. Your Pitch Isnt Personal Part of my course package is a pitch review. I read pitches from students and give them a critique and help them tweak their pitch so that it can convert more and stand out. Over the years Ive checked out a lot of pitches and some pitches just come off as impersonal. They address themselves as we and they dont share anything about themselves (if they are a great collaborative partner for example) and its all about their services in a robust way. Your pitch has to be personal. Small businesses that want a freelance writer arent looking for a company that has a roster of freelance writers; they want a solopreneur that knows their craft and can write wicked copy for them. If your pitch doesnt show that passion from you, then you wont land that gig. 3. You Dont Have a Follow-Up System in Place When you send your pitch, do you forget about it? Do you move on to the next pitch and not worry about the pitches you sent?Ã If they respond, thats great; if they dont move on. Well, youll have a better chance at landing gigs if you create a follow-up system to every pitch you send out. This means after a set time ( a week, two weeks, or several months depending on whether you pitched a small business or magazine) you email them again and ask if they filled the spot for a content writer. This email isnt mean-spirited. Its just a friendly reminder that youre still available and to to please reconsider. Doing this one thing can help you land that client. Its happened to me, and its happened to my students. 4. You Didnt Negotiate in a Professional Way Yikes! You have to negotiate? You didnt sign up for that! Well newbie freelance writer, if you want to land that gig, you need to grow a pair. Sorry, if thats a little blunt, but its true. Im an introvert by nature. Large crowds (and even smaller crowds) and events drain me. I get energized by being by myself and listening to my tunes or even by doing a presentation to a small group. I do thrive off of some people if I do a Facebook live or webinar. So, for me, emailing, pitching, negotiating and networking is easy peasy. Thats because its online and not in front of someone. When you get a response from your pitch, and they ask you your rate, please dont say, Whats your budget? or My rate is $50 per 500 words, but whatever works for you. Ouch and no. This isnt how you negotiate. Another thing to remember is that you are a collaborator, not an employee of the client. You are working with the client to create content for their business. You can squash any potential freelance writing gig by not being professional in your response. Instead, when they ask you your rate, tell them. My typical rate for this type of project is X per 500 words. 5. You Dont Have a Website There are a lot of new freelance writers that email me asking if they NEED a website. Want to freelance online without a website?! Of course, you need a website. If I want to hire a graphic designer or VA, do you think Im just going to look in the newspaper? Or ask a blogger friend? Sure, theyÃ may tellÃ me some names (word of mouth is a strong marketing tool), but its inefficient on your end. If people cant find you, they wont hire you. After my debacle with content mills and freelance marketplaces, I put up a website and created a services page and blog. I looked at other freelance writer websites and saw some commonalities. From there I learned how to sell my services. What if you are bootstrapping it? Thats okay. Starting a website isnt a lot of money. For under $100 you can get your WordPress site started. Remember, this is a business, not a hobby. You have to invest in yourself and in your business for it to grow. In the interim, start a Facebook page (if youre really struggling) and market your business there. 6. You Dont Have Samples I beg to differ. You DO have samples. If you edited your friends resumÃ © or made a newsletter for your uncles soccer store or wrote for your high school newspaper, you can drum up some samples. Now, do they translate online? Not all of them. Thats why the best samples are ones you can create on your blog or fromÃ a Google Doc! Create up to three samples and post them on your writer website. Its that easy. To show prospects you can write, create samples and post them on your website. 7. Your Samples Dont Show Your Value Okay. Theres another problem with new freelance writers. They have samples, but they arent the right samples. Why? Because your samples dont show the value, you have as a writer. A client wants high-value from their writer (especially if they are paying for it). If youre still stuck in the $.04/word or $.o6/word range, clients arent really hiring you for value. They just want a good rate with good enough content. Once you get into the $.10-.30+/word range, then you bet your bottom britches clients want top notch content. If your samples dont show that, then youre not going to land high-paying clients. Over on my writer website, the first couple of samples in my portfolio are high-value ones. They are from popular and established websites, they are long form, and they pack a lot of examples and industry knowledge. Those alone helps me convince prospects that I know my digital marketing niche. Go to your portfolio page and take a good look at your samples. Do they really show how great of a writer you are? Or, is it just filled with all your published posts? Its time to pare down your portfolio. 8. Youre Not Confident Ive been dancing around this one for a while. A lot of new freelance writers struggle with being confident in their writing ability and marketing ability. When I first started this whole thing, I had some challenges with my confidence. For me, it was based on the fact that I dont have a journalism degree or any type of writing degree. But, you know what? Clients could give a hoot about whether you have impeccable grammar or a degree in English or journalism. They want to know you can write for their audience and relate their message and brand to them. They want a professional writer that turns in work on time, can work by themselves, and knows their niche. Confidence happens when you practice. Right now, Ive been doing Facebook live sessions. Now, Ive done webinars before, but Facebook Lives are different. They are more personal and engaging, and the feedback is quick. Youre also on the screen the whole time (mostly) and not referring to your slides. Can I say Im not confident at all? Im anxious, I stumble over my words, and Im so not polished on these Facebook lives. But, you know what? Im still doing them. Im doing a 5 days of freelance writing tips Facebook Live over on my Facebook page. I have no idea how that will go. It will be the wild wild west on my Facebook page, and for some reason, freelance writing gets a lot of ridicule than other freelance businesses! Go figure. But, thats not stopping me. I know how important video will be for 2017, so I better jump on board with cold feet. And, you should do the same with your freelance writing business. 9. You Have No Idea Where To Find Your Ideal Client Do you even know who your ideal client is? Trying to find your ideal client can be a challenge. This is the client that helps you become a writer for a living. This is the client that doesnt balk at your rate, values your writing and offers a testimonial. You want that client, but where the heck are they? I can tell you right now; you probably wont find them on Upwork. Now, I know there are writers out there that have worked with their ideal clients on that platform, but Ive had no luck finding any work there, and pitching was terrible on that platform. To find your ideal client, you need to: Raise your rate Create an inbound marketing strategy Use other pipelines to find a client (not only job boards) Its all in your hands freelance writer! 10. Youre Not Spending Time on Your Freelance Biz Let me guess: This is a side hustle for you, right? You have a full-time job to go to that sucks up all your time, and then when youre home, you have a family to tend to. I get it. I do this as a side hustle too (still do) and its hella hard to find time for my client work. My twins no longer nap and the only time I can write is at night. Now, if this wereÃ the case when I first started, it wouldnt have taken me 6 months to make a living as a freelance writer; it wouldve probably taken much much longer. When you dont give yourself adequate time to grow your business, dont expect to have jobs coming to you. You have to invest in your business, so carve time before going to work or during nap time and at night (sorry The Walking Dead, but Ill watch when my client work is done!). 11. Your Niche is Too Broad Whats your niche? Is it gardening? Parenting? Health? These niches are too broad. Anyone can have those niches, so how do you expect a client to find the perfect health writer? When they find a paleo health writer or medical writer for small businesses. The riches are in the niches writers! When you can hone your niche, clients will magically be able to find you and hire you on the spot. Its that simple and that quick. How do you hone your niche? Look at your expertise and knowledge or look what you like to write about. For me, I enjoy writing about content marketing and email marketing on social media. From there, make a new title for your business. I like to go by a B2B professional writer. 12. You Avoid Social Media (Like the Plague!) Oh no, dont tell me you dont have a Twitter profile or at least a LinkedIn profile? If you want to get paid as a freelance writer online, you need to be on social media. This is another way to show your credibility as an online writer. Its free to use, and its easy to create a profile. Remember that these profiles are business ones. If you already have social media profiles, you can use them for your business (just remove pictures that dont align with your biz) or create new profiles. Since I didnt have a Twitter or LinkedIn profile before I started freelance writing, I just created new profiles. Make sure you also show your face. Even if you are a private person, you should still show some personal features of you. Some writers choose to use an avatar. This is fine, but having a real headshot helps with trusting you more. 13. You Dont Network I have an email list of almost 4,000 subscribers, and its such a personal relationship I share with my subscribers. And, when I hear from a subscriber tell me they dont normally reply to newsletters or even attempt to email writers, I feel a little sad. Networking is such a pivotal partÃ to the long-term success of your business. Without networking, youre facing this journey all alone. Networking was what helped me with getting my gig on OptinMonster as well as writing for influences in my industry. It also helped me raise my rate and appear more credible since I had social proof from a network of entrepreneurs that I could write. So, how do you network? Share other peoples work Comment on blogs you want to write for Email other freelance writers Ã°Å¸â¢â Follow other writers and small businesses 14. You Dont Try Other Ways to Find Clients I know. You are already having a tough time landing ANY work, so its not worth it to try something new. And heck, you may not even know of other ways (or how to use other ways) to land clients. It took me a while to learn about cold pitching and warm pitching, but now that I acquired those skills, its easy for me to find and land work. I also learned how to find clients on social media too! If you cant find work on Upwork, then try freelance writing job boards. If that doesnt pan out, start looking at cold and warm pitching. 15. You Dont Have a Pitching Process Do you feel like your sending pitches with no rhyme or reason? You pick a job board here, you cold pitch a company there, and then wait a bit before you do it again. Its important to have a pitching process that can help streamline your acquisition process. This means having a process when you pitch and knowing when to pitch, where youll pitch and creating a follow-up sequence. 16. Youre Stuck Writing For Pennies I hear ya. Freelance marketplaces or content mills dont value us as writers. They want the most amount of content for the least amount of money. They care less about the content and what you provide overall. Of course, there are exceptions to the rule, but this is what I found. You waste your time trying to find these low-ball offers and then dont have time to really try to land some profitable gigs. Its time to switch that around and find a new way to find jobs. To start getting more higher-paying clients: Create a writer website Become an expert in your niche Search forÃ freelance writing jobs Learn how to effectively cold pitch and warm pitch 17. Youre Not Taking Any Action Youre probably overwhelmed by this all, right? Suddenly, theres just too much information, and you have analysis paralysis. I so get you. I get sometimes stuck if I read too much of one thing or watch videos of one topic. Its best not to get sucked into reading or watching one more thing. Learn to block all that social noise and focus on whats important: creating a sustaining and profitable freelance writing business so you can make a living from it. Then, take action. Ã Write a pitch, start a blog, hob knob with influencers, leave blog comments, etc.. Try to do one thing a day to get you closer to landing a client (My 6 day free course is a good start). 18. You Had a Misconception That It Was Easy Some new freelance writers think its easy to land clients. They think ifÃ they have a blog or a degree in creative writing, that clients will come knocking on their door so to speak. This type of freelance writerÃ will find it extremely hard to land any profitable gig. They will hold out and not be any flexible with their writing or expectations. If you think its easy, change that mindset now. Know that you have to work from the ground up to be profitable. It wont be handed to you that easily. I know it may be hard for some, but the sooner you learn that you have to work hard, the quicker youll be at attracting the right client for you. Wrapping it Up There are many reasons why you may not be landing a freelance writing client or a profitable client. I know atÃ the beginning of my journey, I made a lot of mistakes. I had to learn from them and it took me longer to where I am today. I hope you find yourself in one of these reasons and use the tips to help you change and start getting a client! Let me know in the comments why you think youre not landing any (or profitable) clients.
Thursday, March 5, 2020
The Greedy Triangle Teaches Kids About Geometry This sample lesson plan uses the book The Greedy Triangle to teach about the attributes of two-dimensional figures. The plan is designed for second-grade and third-grade students, and it requires a 45-minute period for twoÃ days. The only supplies needed are: The book The Greedy Triangle by Marilyn BurnsSeveral sheets of poster paper The objective of this lesson plan is forÃ students to learn that shapes are defined by their attributes- specifically the number of sides and angles they have.Ã The key vocabulary wordsÃ in this lesson areÃ triangle,Ã square,Ã pentagon,Ã hexagon, side andÃ angle. Common Core Standards Met This lesson plan satisfies the following Common Core standards in the Geometry category and Reason With Shapes and Their Attributes sub-category.Ã 2.G.1. Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces. Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes.3.G.1. Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories. Lesson Introduction Have students imagine that they are triangles and then ask them several questions. What would be fun? What would be frustrating? If you were a triangle, what would you do and where would you go? Step-by-Step Procedure Create four large pieces of chart paper with the headings Ã¢â¬Å"Triangle,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Quadrilateral,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"PentagonÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Hexagon.Ã¢â¬ Draw examples of these shapes at the top of the paper, leaving lots of room to record student thoughts.Keep track of student responses in the lesson introduction on the four large pieces of paper. You will continue to add responses to this as you read the story.Read the story The Greedy Triangle to the class. Split the lesson over two days to go through the story gradually.As you read the first section of the book about the Greedy Triangle and how much he likes being a triangle, have students retell sections from the storys include fit into the space near peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s hips and be a piece of pie. Have students list more examples if they can think of any.Continue to read the story and add to the list of student remarks. If you take your time with this book to get lots of student thoughts, you will likely need two days for th e lesson.At the end of the book, discuss with the students why the triangle wanted to be a triangle again. Homework and Evaluation Have students write an answer to this prompt: What shape would you like to be and why? Students should use all of the following vocabulary words to create a sentence: AngleSideShape They should also include two of the following terms: TriangleQuadrilateralPentagonHexagon Example answers include: Ã¢â¬Å"If I were a shape, I would want to be a pentagon because it has more sides and angles than a quadrilateral.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"A quadrilateral is a shape with four sides and four angles, and a triangle has only three sides and three angles.Ã¢â¬
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
The Black Swan - Essay Example Based on the example given, it is clear that the Internet is one of the encouraging events that have occurred. Conversely, Bp Mexican Gulf oil spill could be termed as a discouraging unforeseen event. Question 2 Yes, it makes sense to allocate resources to prevent a black swan event. Based on what happened to BP, it could be seen that the company would have prevented the disaster by allocating reasonable financial resources for structural expansion. BPÃ¢â¬â¢s partner, Anadarko, points out that the company made a poor choice and unreasonable measures by allocating money to the firm but instead management of the company advanced personal issues leaving the company with structural issues. This made the company vulnerable to any disaster. Both BPÃ¢â¬â¢s partner Anadarko and American oil industry agreed that BP has been in the forefront to cut the cost of company instead of improving the company technically (Correa n.d). Question 3 Yes, it makes sense to devote resources to contain a black swan event in case it occurs, which this is clear from the Bp oil spill. The spill occurred after installation of pipes with the use of limited centralizers. From the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s email, it is clear that the financial allocation was insufficient. If the company had allocated more money for procurement of more centralizers, the oil spill disaster would not have occurred. In addition, the American oil industry and the Bp partner agree with allocation of more resources for risk management. The company tried to cut costs, which is clear from the unjustifiable number of centralizers. The number of centralizers installed was six instead of 21 recommended centralizers by the engineers (Marianne 2010). Furthermore, there is a need for more financial resources for structural strengthening to avoid future catastrophe, the case of Bp Oil Company, it would have averted black swan had it allocated $7 billion to $21 billion for safety measures like procurement of safer head pipes. Quest ion4 Yes, human error is different from a black swan event because it is a decision that individuals make and at the end, it causes a disaster. For example, Bp oil company management decided to use six centralizers instead of the recommended 21 centralizers. This is a human error because someone made an undesirable decision. Conversely, black swan events cannot be the same as a human error because it cannot be predicted using past information or scientific approach. Yes, human error can lead to Black Swan, considering the 2008 financial crisis, it would have been easily prevented if financial experts had taken into consideration the financial mistakes which were already visible in the year 2006 (Marianne 2010). The case of Bp Oil Company, whereby the disaster of oil spill occurred, it is clear that human error leads to black swan, oil spilling and causing huge environmental pollution and making the company to into financial crisis. As pointed out above the use of less number of cent ralizers against the recommended number is human error that leads to black swan. Question 5 As an executive of Bp, my consideration would be redundancies wells. With little amount of money available I will have to invest on the remaining well. The extra well will help incase another disaster occurs. Precautionary measures should also be put into consideration. For example, the company will have to install acoustic shutoff switches to prevent offshore oil spills. In addition, an insurance
Monday, February 3, 2020
Future business needs of reverse logistics - Research Paper Example It is becoming a concern in the modern day supply chain that retailers should try to incorporate reverse logistics into supply transactions and should not treat them as individual or minor cases. The management in lace should also strive to link up the various transactions in the supply chain to be in line with reverse logistics. The statistical control process can be of great help in the shaping the future of reverse logistics. This type of approach emphasizes on the end quality of a particular product. This process emphasizes on efficiency and ensures that the desired end goal is met with minimized waste and increased efficiency. This approach takes two stages: the first stage is the commencing of the process while the second stage is the frequent application of this process. The statistical control process commonly makes use of machine, man, material, and method in the manufacturing process (Dekker et al., 2004).. Since this method of production emphasizes on the quality of production, it puts a keen interest in the initial stages of this production method. This emphasis is to ensure that there is efficiency in the production process rather than correction of mistakes made at a later stage. This process can therefore mint reverse logistics into the initial programme of the supply chain to make the process more efficient and effective. The core tenets that the statistical control method applies are control charts, the stable process, and the excessive variation procedures to obtain the desired results. According to Dyckhoff et al. (2004), the leadership put in place should be in a position to ensure that the process is not only efficient but also put across counter attack procedures. The main aim of leadership in position is to ensure that the return of merchandise is swift, less costly and convenient to both the manufacturers and the customers. The leadership should ensure that there is avoidance of the return of already
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Experts Are Not Always Right First and foremost who is an expert. An expert may be defined as someone or is said to be someone widely recognized as a person having special skill or knowledge about a particular thing. An expert in other words is a person with intensive knowledge or idea based on research, experience or occupation in a certain area of study. An expert can be by virtue of education, profession or experience believed to have a special knowledge of a subject more than that of an average person, reliable enough that others may rely upon the individuals way of thinking, believe or judgment. For someone or an individual to be an expert, the person or that particular individual must be professionally or academically qualified for them to be accepted as an expert. The person has to have the technical know-how and a sound knowledge of what his particular field of study is all about. The person must be able to give a very good explanation of questions that are asked which are related to his field. Just like no man is an island of knowledge, so also experts are not always right. No one has entire knowledge of something and because of no one has entire knowledge, nobody is above mistake. If you call a group of people experts, it is because you believe they know much about their field of study, they cannot make any type of mistake and that they can tackle any problem that has to do with it but the truth is no one can know everything in life because nobody is perfect. For example, a medical doctor is considered to be an expert, and because of the believe that he is capable of diagnosing what the problem is if a person is sick, the person is taken to the doctor who examines the patient and gives the aliment a name. He gives the patient antibiotics to take, after some time, if the patient is still not fit; he is given other antibiotics to take. The doctor keeps giving him antibiotics and conducting different tests until he finally figures out what the problem is. But the question he re is, if really a doctor knows everything about his field, why does he have to conduct tests and try different antibiotics? Why doesnt he just give the patient the perfect antibiotics for his aliment? And the answer is because even a doctor is not perfect and therefore, needs to try different things in other to reach a conclusion. Another example is that of an editor, the work of an editor is to make sure a book is fit to be published and sold to the public; he removes what is not supposed to be and puts what is supposed to be in a book. If a book is taken to him, he checks the book and forwards it to another editor, the second editor gives it to another editor which is the third editor and the third editor gives it to the fourth person who is the proof reader and then he proofreads and then finally to the chief editor who finally checks the book. But even after the book has been checked by almost five people, at the end of the day, you still find out you dont have the best work. Why? Because an editor alone cannot check and proof read a book. And also nobody is perfect in life. One thing that is constant in life is change, which also affects the productivity of experts. Change is dynamic, things keep on changing and people learn new things at every point in life. For example an expert who has conducted a research a year ago wont expect to have the same result if he conducts another research on the same thing after a year. Because it might be possible that even at the time of his previous research, one thing or the other has changed and it will keep changing because change is dynamic. An example is that of an engineer who is said to be very creative and an expert in his field, if a car is faulty, he doesnt just figure out what the problem is by mere looking at the car, he has to check the entire engine of the car before knowing what the problem is and how the problem occurred but even after he repairs the car, it doesnt mean the car wont face any more problems in the future, or even if the car faces the same problem in the future, it doesnt mean its the same skill or method he used in repairing the car previously that would be used the next time the problem occurs. Why? Because change is dynamic, everything is bound to change with time and there can be more advanced ways of repairing it. Another factor that affects the productivity of experts is over confidence. Because of the believe people have in experts, how they think experts dont make mistakes and how people think they are all-knowing, they tend to overlook the little necessities in their work. They become careless and make a lot of mistakes. An example of an experts carelessness is an operation carried out by a surgeon. Who is a surgeon A surgeon is an expert in his field which is to operate patients but that doesnt mean his operations are always successful and that he is not bound to make mistakes. Just like in the case of Dr. Nitin Aggarwal and his patient Gurcharan Singh which happened in sat guru Nagar on Sunday. Urologist Dr. Nitin being an expert detected a tumor in his patients urinary bladder which he operated on the 31st march. But then, after the operation, the patient complained of fever and was again showed to the same doctor who diagnosed him with cancer and started chemotherapy. After a month his X-ray was done in a government-run hospital in Dhanaula and the X-ray showed a pair of scissors inside his abdomen. He was then referred to a civil hospital where he was operated again. In this case even though the doctor was an expert in his field, he overlooked the little things he was supposed to pay attention to during the operation and made a great mistake which could have cost the patients life. If someo ne is overconfident or too full of himself, he is bound to be careless and if he is careless then he is bound to make mistakes in life. Experts make a very huge thing out of what they have just to get what they want from you. For example, doctors have different scientific names for a particular disease, when a sick person is taken to a doctor; he examines the patient and gives the aliment a scientific name, if the patient happens to go to another doctor, the doctor will also examine him and give the disease a different name. All this happens because, they also use their personal opinions and people dont question them because they feel they are experts in their own field and that they cannot make any form of mistake. Some experts use their personal opinions in disguise of a well done research and at the end of the day, they fail to provide supporting evidences to back up what they say or write in a book. Conclusively, experts cannot always be right because no man is an island of knowledge so no one can know everything, no one is perfect, and they tend to make mistakes. Over confidence and carelessness also affects their productivity which also leads them to making lots of mistakes. They make a very huge thing out of what they have just to get what they want and change is dynamic which also affects their productivity.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Chapters 5 and 6 Study Guide 1. For the Romans, _________ Italy's __________ geography made Rome a natural crossroads and an area easy to defend. P114 2. Rome was established in the first millennium B. C. on the plain of __________ plain of Latium ___________. P114 3. All of the following about the Etruscans are correct expelled many of Rome's patrician class and established a republic in Rome in 509 B. C. p. 114-115 a. | settled north of Rome. | b. | adopted alphabetic language from the Greeks before 600 B. C. | c. | had begun to decline by 480 B. C. | . | Ã¢â¬Å"civilizedÃ¢â¬ Rome by turning it into a true city. | 4. ______________ Rome ____________ set a precedent for treating its vanquished foes after forming the Roman Confederation by offering the most favored Ã¢â¬Å"alliedÃ¢â¬ peoples full Roman citizenship, thus giving them a stake in successful Roman expansion. p. 120 5. _____________ RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s ______Ã¢â¬â¢s conquest of the Italian peninsula by 264 B. C. can be attributed in part to superb diplomacy. p. 121 6. In defeating the ___________ Greek ____________ city-states in southern Italy, Rome had to fight the soldiers of King Pyrrhus, sent against them by the Greeksp. 20 7. The Roman ____________ Dictator _____________ was a temporary executive during the period of the Republic and exercised unlimited power for a period of usually six months. p. 117 8. Executive authority or ___________ imperium ___________ during the Roman Republic was held by the consuls and praetors. p. 117 9. As Rome expanded, it became Roman policy to govern the provinces with officials known as ______________ proconsuls __________ and propraetors. p. 117 10. The ___________ paterfamilias ________ in Roman society was the male head of the household. p. 118 11.Originally the Roman ________ Senate __________ could only advise the magistrates in legal matters. p. 117 12. In their struggle with the patricians, Roman __________ plebeins ____________employed which of the following tactics: a physical withdrawal from the state undercutting its military manpower and the formation of popular assemblies to lobby for more political reforms. p. 118 13. The _______ twelve _______ Tables was/were the first formal codification of Roman law and customs. p. 118-119 14. The following statements about the Roman armies in the early Republic are correct. . 125 a. | All soldiers were citizens. | b. | Most soldiers were farmers. | c. | Soldiers were enrolled for only a year. | d. | In the fourth century BCE there were four legions, each consisting of 4,000 to 5,000 men. | 15. The _________ Carthaginians __________originated from Phoenician Tyre. p. 121 16. The immediate cause of the First Punic War was Rome sending an army to_______ Sicily ____________. p. 122 17. As a result of the First Punic War the Carthaginians were forced to withdraw from ___________ Sicily _____________ and pay an indemnity to Rome. . 122 18. During the Second Punic War, ____________ Scipio Africanus _______________ expelled the Carthaginians from Spain and later won the decisive Battle of Zama. p. 124 19. The Second Punic War saw Carthage carry a land war to Rome by crossing the _____ Alps ____. p. 123 20. The Roman senator who led the movement for the complete destruction of Carthage was ___ Cato ____. P. 124 21. The result of the _________ Third Punic War ____________ Punic War was the complete destruction and subjugation of Carthage. p. 124 22.It can best be said that __________ Roman _____________ imperial expansion was highly opportunistic, responding to unanticipated military threats and possibilities for glory. p. 124 23. The head of the Roman religious observances was______ the pontifex maximus _______. p. 127 24. In Roman __________ religion ______________, a right relationship with the gods was achieved by accurate performance of rituals and festivals. p. 127 25. Roman religious practices included: a. | a college of priests to carry out rituals correctly. | b. | the adoption of certain Greek gods like Apollo. | p. 27 26. With regards to Roman schooling, education stressed training in __________ Greek _______________ and mastery of rhetoric, or persuasive public speaking. p. 128 27. By the latter Republic, Roman slaves often worked on the Roman _______house hold workers___________. p. 129 28. Roman ________upper________-class women typically had some independent legal rights and property. p. 131 29. In Rome, the male family head, the paterfamilias, couldp. 129 a. | sell his children. | b. | put his children to death. | c. | arrange the marriages of all offspring. | d. | divorce his wife. | 30.The Romans' most noticeable innovations in art and culture were found in __________ architecture _____________ and ____________ engineering ___________. p. 13331. The reforms of Gaius and Tiberius ________________ Gracchus _______________resulted in further instability and violence as they polarized various social groups. p. 13632. The __________ equites ____________were a wealthy and ambitious class of Romans who appeared in the late Republic. p. 135 33. ______________ Sulla ___________'s legacy and importance was that he employed his personal army in political disputes, paving the way toward Roman civil war. . 13734. Among the dangerous military innovations of _______ Marius _______________threatening the Republic, one finds he recruited destitute volunteers who swore an oath of allegiance only to him. p. 13635. Cicero: a. | believed in a Ã¢â¬Å"concord of the orders. Ã¢â¬Å"| b. | was a Ã¢â¬Å"new manÃ¢â¬ of the equestrian order. | c. | was a great orator and capable lawyer. | d. | advocated a balanced government of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy. | p. 13836. Julius ____________ Caesar ______________led military commands in Spain and especially Gaul that enhanced his popularity. p. 13837.The First Triumvirate included____ Caesar____, ___ Crassus____, and___ Pompey____. p. 138 Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey.38. By crossing the___________ Rubicon ____________, Caesar showed that he was willing to disobey the direct orders of the Senate. p. 13939. The Roman Senate under _____________ Augustus ______________was retained as the chief deliberative body of the Roman state. p. 14840. The absolute monarchical powers of Augustus as princeps led to a. | the usual victory of his candidates in official elections. | b. | the decline of popular participation in elections. | c. his great popularity, as he followed proper legal forms for his power. | p. 14941. Augustus held the titles of imperator, ____________imperium____________, tribune, and prineps. p. 148-14942 . The Roman ________ praetorian _______________ guards were elite troops given the task of protecting the emperor. p. 15043. Under the rule of______________ Augustus _____________, the Roman Empire turned towards an absolute monarchy, with the princeps overshadowing the Senate. p. 14844. The event that curtailed _____________ Augustus's ________________Ã¢â¬â¢s expansionist policies was the defeat by Varus in the Teutoburg Forest. . 15145. Romanization in Roman empire occurred quickly in the __________West________. P. 158 west46. Among Augustus' most important actions in the area of Roman religion was his creation of an imperial ___________Cult_______________. p. 15247. The city on the Tiber that was Rome's chief port was________ Ostia _______________. p. 15848. Livy was best known in the Augustan Age for his __________ History of Rome ___________ in 142 books. p. 15349. Ovid's ___________ The Art of Love _________________ caused great displeasure to Augustus and led to Ovid's even tual exile. p. 52-15350. The Ã¢â¬Å"golden ageÃ¢â¬ historian ___________ Livy ______________is well known for his perceiving history in terms of sharp moral lessons. p. 15351. The successor to Augustus and first of the Julio-Claudian rulers was_________ Tiberius ____________. p. 15452. The Julio-Claudian emperors varied in ability and effectiveness. p. 15453. During the reigns of the _____________ Julio-Claudian ____________ emperors, Emperors took more and more actual ruling power away from the old Senate. p. 15454. The first of the Flavian emperors was___________ Vespasian _______________. . 15455. The correct order of the five Ã¢â¬Å"good emperorsÃ¢â¬ is _______ Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pious, Marcus Aurelius _____. p. 15556. All of the following occurred during the reigns of the five Ã¢â¬Å"good emperorsÃ¢â¬ a. | being a period of peace for 100 years. | b. | the establishment of educational programs for the poor. | c. | extensive building programs. | d. | being an era of prosperity. | p. 15557. Trade and commerce in the Early Empire stimulated manufacturing, concentrated some industries in certain areas, was secondary in importance to ____ agriculture ___. . 16058. The Ã¢â¬Å"good emperorÃ¢â¬ Marcus Aurelius was regarded as a philosopher king deeply influenced by the principles of _______ Stoicism _____________. p. 15559. The largest area of Roman innovation in architecture was the use of ___________ concrete ____________on a massive scale. p. 16260. Imperial Rome's _______ gladiatorial ________shows were government-backed spectacles used to content the masses. p. 16461. The two Roman cities that destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 A. D. were Pompeii and _______ Herculaneum _________. p. 16662.Among the upper classes of the Early Empire ______ women _____ had considerable freedom and independence. p. 16763. The early values of___________ Christianity ____________, as exemplified in Jesus' Ã¢â¬Å"sermon on the mount,Ã¢â¬ emphasized devotion to the values of humility, charity, and true brotherly love. p. 17164. Early ___ Christianity ______ was molded into a broader religious movement by Paul of Tarsus. p. 17165. The emperor who said, Ã¢â¬Å"Live in harmony, make the soldiers rich, and don't give a damn for anything elseÃ¢â¬ was____ Septimius Severus ________. p. 16966.The late third century emperor who reconquered and reestablished order in the east and along the Danube and who was known as the Ã¢â¬Å"restorer of the worldÃ¢â¬ was_____ Aurelian ______. p. 16967. The two Roman emperors who notably persecuted the Christian minority were ____ Decius _______ and ____ Diocletian ______. p. 176 NOTE:The correct answers are provided for numbers 3, 14, 25, 29, 35, 40, 52, and 56.Chapters 7, 8 and 9 Study Guide1. The Edict of _________ Milan ________ was Constantine's document officially tolerating the existence of Christianity.P1822. The Council of ________ Nicaea ____________ in 325 defined Christ a s being Ã¢â¬Å"of the same substanceÃ¢â¬ as God. P1833. The heresy of Arianism questioned the divinity of ______ Jesus _______. P1834. In the late fourth century, the Visigoths and other Germanic tribes, were pushed into the Balkans region of the Eastern Roman Empire because of pressure from the _______ Huns ______. P1845. ________ Theodoric ________, the Ostrogothic king who took control of Italy, was determined to maintain Roman customs and practices in Italy. P1886.After the death of _______ theodoric ________, the Ostrogothic kingdom was defeated by the Byzantines, reducing Rome as a center of Mediterranean culture. P1887. The Frankish palace official, Charles Martel, successfully defended the civilization of the new western European kingdoms in 732 by defeating Muslim armies in 732 and driving them back to Spain. P1898. Guilt under Germanic customary law was determined by compurgation and ordeal. P1909. Frankish marriage customs placed strong sanctions (sometimes death) on a dulterous _________ women _________. P19110. The pope who supposedly caused Attila and the Huns to turn away from Rome was ___Leo 1_______. P19411. The Petrine Doctrine was the belief that the bishops of Rome held a preeminent position in the church. P19312. Augustine did all of the following:P192-193 a. | write Confessions. | b. | use pagan culture in the service of Christianity. | c. | advocate marriage for the procreation of children as a good alternative for Christians incapable of upholding the ideal of celibacy as a means to holiness. | d. | author The City of God. |13. Augustine's Confessions was written as an account of his own miraculous personal conversion. P19214. Saint Jerome, is known for all of the following:P193 a. | his mastery of Latin prose. | b. | his skills as a linguist. | c. | his translations of the Old and New Testaments from Hebrew and Greek into Latin. | d. | becoming one of the Latin Fathers of the Church. |15. The father of hermit monasticism was ______ S t. Anthony ____________. P19516. The basic rule for western monastic living was developed by ___ benedict __________. P19517. Benedictine monasticism is characterized by:P196 a. | an ideal of moderation. | b. | the communal life. | c. isolated, self-sustaining communities. | d. | vows and rules. |18. The Ã¢â¬Å"Apostle to the GermansÃ¢â¬ and the most famous churchman in Europe in the eighth century was ______ Boniface __________. P19819. In 597, Pope Gregory the Great sent the monk, Augustine, to England to convert the Anglo-Saxons. P19720. Pope Gregory the Great was responsible for all of the following:P194 a. | creating the Papal States. | b. | recognizing the Byzantine emperor as the rightful ruler of Italy. | c. | supporting the work of Christian missionaries in England. | d. | becoming Bishop of Rome. |21.The primary instrument of Pope Gregory for converting the Germanic peoples of Europe was____ monastic movement ________. P19522. The greatest difference between Irish Chris tianity and Roman Christianity was in Irish church organization, giving Irish abbots more power than bishops. P19723. One of the greatest nuns of the seventh monastery, and founder of the Whitby monastery was ___ St. Hilda _________. P19824. The great Christian scholar of late antiquity, ________ Cassiodorus ______________, divided the seven liberal arts into the trivium and quadrivium. According to Cassiodorus, the trivium includes grammar, hetoric, and dialectic or logic. P20025. Justinian's military conquests under the general, Belisarius, were __ Vandal Kingdom in North Africa _and Italian peninsula occupying sicily________________________. P20126. Justinian's most important contribution to Western civilization was his_____ codification of the law ______. P20227. The Corpus Iuris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) compiled under Justinian was the last Byzantine contribution to the west to be written in Latin. P20228. The woman whose support put down the Nika Revolt against Justinian's rule in 532 was_________ Theodora _____. P20329.The following are great buildings in the city of Constantinople:P204 a. | Hagia Sophia| b. | Hippodrome| c. | Royal Palace| d. | b and d|30. During the period of the Roman Empire, the Arabian Peninsula was dominated by the ____ bedouin nomads ______. P20631. The cardinal principle of the Islamic faith is that there is only God and his prophet is ________ Muhammad ___________. P20732. Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622 is known as the _______ Hegira ______. P20733. The following are similarities between Christianity and Islam:P207 a. | Each of the faiths had a holy book. | b. | Both religions were monotheistic. c. | Both religions had as part of their scriptures divine revelation. | d. | Both religions envisioned heaven or paradise for believers.34. The successors to Muhammad's leadership of the Muslims were known as______ caliphs ______. P20835. Muslim societies abide by a strict code of law, much of it derived from the holy book Qur'an, and regulating all aspects of Muslim life. This law code is called ______ Shari'a. ____. P207-20836. The Muslim dynasty that assumed power after the assassination of Muhammad's son-in-law, Ali, and moved the capital to Damascus was the ______ Umayyad __________.P 20937. In the Early Middle Ages, the cultivation of new land was hard because the forests of Europe were so thick and crude tools of the era made land clearing arduous. P21438. In the early Middle Ages, Germanic tribes newly converted to Christianity still held pagan beliefs such as trees were sacred beings and could not be cut down. P21439. The first Frankish king to be anointed in holy ceremony by an agent of the pope was _____ Pepin _______. P21440. Charlemagne's most disappointing military campaign came against the _______ Basques __________. P21541.The coronation of ___________ Charlemagne _____________ in 800 as emperor of the Romans symbolized the fusion of Roman, Germanic, and Christian cultures. P2184 2. Regarding sexuality, the Catholic Church in the Early Middle Ages could not enforce clerical celibacy. P22043. Socially and culturally, the church's advocacy of indissoluble marriage resulted in the development of the nuclear family at the expense of the extended family. P22044. Medicine in the Early Middle Ages and medicine in earlier pagan times used __medicines and natural practices with appeals for other-worldly help, magical rites and influences were used_______.P22345. Carolingian society was marked by all of the following:P222 a. | the use of bleeding to cure illness. | b. | different patterns of consumption of foodstuffs among rich and poor. | c. | the vices of gluttony and drunkenness. | d. | considerable violence. |46. What was the name of the treaty that divided the Carolingian Empire in 843? P224_______________ treaty of Verdun___________47. The division of Europe into three kingdoms after the death of Louis the Pious led to an incessant struggle between Louis the Ger man, Charles the Bald, and their heirs over disputed territories. P22448.The following statements are true of the Vikings:P226-227 a. | Their iron weapons and superior shipbuilding were largely responsible for their successful raids. | b. | Their raids and settlements aided the growth of fief-holding. | c. | Christianity assimilated them into European civilization. | d. | They came from Scandinavia. |49. One of the most famous Vikings, who discovered Greenland, was ___ Erik the Red. ____. P22850. In Western Europe, the chief political repercussion of frequent Viking raids was an increase in the power of local aristocrats to whom threatened populations turned for effective protection.P22851. Feudalism of medieval Europe was primarily a complex system of vassalage by which the weak sought protection and sustenance from powerful local nobles. P22852. The Ã¢â¬Å"hierarchicalÃ¢â¬ fief-holding system in which vassals in turn had vassals owing them services was known as _____ subinfeuda tion ______. P22953. The major obligation of the lord to the _____ vassal ____ was economic support and protection either militarily or through grants of land. P22954. Under _____ feudalism _______of the Early Middle Ages the major obligation of a vassal to his lord was to provide military service. P22955. The ____ Slavs _________ were originally a single people in central Europe. P23656. The Swedish Vikings-the Varangians-became known or assimilated with which of the following groups: ________ Russians ___________. P23757. The ruthless Russian leader responsible for tying Russian political and religious ideals to the Byzantine Empire was _______ Vladimir 1 _______. P23758. The Islamic city in Spain that served as the Umayyad capital was _______ Cordoba ____. P23959. The capital city of the Umayyad Caliphate and center of an Islamic empire was ____ Damascus ______. P23760. The major socio-political change associated with the _______ Abbasid _____ Caliphate is promotion of judges, me rchants, and government officials over warriors as ideal citizens. P23861. The Abbasids broke down the distinctions between Arab and non-Arab Muslims. P23762. One consequence of the new agriculture of the Early Middle Ages was the destruction of the ______farmland__________. P24463. The Ã¢â¬Å"agricultural revolutionÃ¢â¬ of the High Middle Ages was in part brought about by a change from the two-field to the three-field system. P24664. New technological developments in agriculture improving productivity of foodstuffs included all of the following: a. | iron hoes. | b. | the use of horse shoes. | c. | the heavy-wheeled, iron-tipped plow (carruca). | d. | watermills and windmills. P245-246|65. List sources of power by medieval farmers? ____ horses, water, windmills and oxen _____________________________________________________________. P245-24666. The peasant's life during the Middle Ages was largely determined by ________ the seasons. _______. P24667. The basic staple of the peasan t diet was ____ bread _________. P24668. The village church was led by local priests who were often barely literate. P24769. The high number of fights and accidents described in medieval court records may plausibly be attributed to the high consumption of ________Alcohol____________. P24770. Male ___ nobles _ of the High Middle Ages were almost solely preoccupied with warfare. P24771. In medieval thought, women were considered by nature subservient and lesser beings than __ men ___. P24972. The main part of the medieval castle was called the _____ moat ________. P24873.The knightly code of ethics known as chivalry included all of the following requirements:P250 a. | knights were to fight to defend the church. | b. | knights were to protect the weak and defenseless. | c. | winning glory should be the knight's highest aim and motivating force. | d. | knights should fight for their overlords. |74. Combative tournaments involving knights were considered excellent and necessary training for warfare. P25075. Marriages among the aristocracy of the High Middle Ages were expected to establish political alliances between families and increase their wealth. P25076.By the twelfth century, _______ divorce _________ among nobles was not possible except through official recognition that a marriage had never been valid. P25177. The term Ã¢â¬Å"burgÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"boroughÃ¢â¬ referred to a ______fortress_________. P25478. To protect their interests against nobles, townspeople often formed _______Commune________. P25579. A major motive contributing to the revolutionary political behavior of European townspeople was their great need for unfettered mobility to conduct trade efficiently. P25580. On the whole, medieval cities tended to be relatively undemocratic; the wealthy usually ruled and voted in civic elections. P25581. Medieval cities had skylines dominated by the towers of churches, castles, and town halls. P255-25782. A major cause of pollution in medieval cities was the smell and waste of animals and humans. P257-25883. The guild system of medieval European cities did all of the following:P259 a. | enforce standards and methods of production for various articles. | b. | fix prices at which finished goods could be sold. | c. | set the numbers of people who could enter key trades and the procedures by which they could do so. | d. | maintain monopolies of production and sales. |84.Drinking water in the cities of the Middle Ages usually came from ____ wells ___. P25985. The first university to be founded in Europe appeared in ___ Bologna ________. P26086. The first university in northern Europe was ______ University of Paris_____________________. P26087. Due to its many cathedral schools, the intellectual center of Europe by the twelfth century was _ France __. P26088. Students in medieval universities often engaged in quarrels with one another and in confrontations with townspeople. P261-26289. Concerning the curriculum of the medieval university students studied the trivium and quadrivium. P260-26190. The renaissance of the twelfth century was primarily caused by circulation in the west in Latin translation of many ancient philosophical and scientific works previously saved by ____ Muslim ____ scholars. P262-26391. The renaissance of the twelfth century saw all of the following:P262-263 a. | Muslim scientific discoveries made available to the west. | b. | scholarly receptiveness to the works of Jewish thinkers. | c. | a great influx of Aristotle's writings previously available only to Arab scholars. | d. | Islamic Spain being a conduit of scholarly works from ancient Greece and from the Muslim world. |92. The primary preoccupation of ___ Scholasticism ______ was the reconciliation of faith with reason. P26393. The medieval theological debate between the scholastic realists and nominalists centered around the problem of universals and the nature of reality. P26394. The Summa Theologica of Thomas ___ Aquinas _______ raised qu estions concerning theology and solved them by the dialectical method. P264-26595. The Song of __Roland______ is one of the finest examples of the medieval chanson de geste. P26596. The dominant style of the church architecture in the eleventh and twelfth centuries was ___ romanesque ______. P26697. The following are characteristics of Romanesque architecture:P266-267 a. | churches in this style were built in rectangular shape| b. | massive pillars and walls were required for support| c. | heavy barrel vaults with rounded stone roofs replaced flat wooden roofs| d. | few windows. |98. Gothic cathedrals seem to soar upward as light and airy constructions due to all of the following innovations: a. | ribbed vaults. | b. | flying buttresses. | c. | thin walls pierced by huge stained glass windows. | d. | pointed arches. P267|99. The Gothic style of architecture emerged and was perfected in ___ France _____. P268
Friday, January 10, 2020
Introduction: The Rise in Divorce Rates. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Rasul began his paper on the economics of child custody with an observation and analysis of the American family. For him, the last thirty years had been witness to dramatic transformations involving the American family (Rasul, 2006, 1). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This dramatic change since the 1970s consists in the composition of American families. Where thirty years ago, more than half of the American families consisted of a father, mother, and child or children, today such composition only forms one in five families (Rasul, 2006, 1). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Such significant change is attributed to one factor alone, which is divorce. Rasul observes that the instances of divorce have risen dramatically over the years, such that it affects more than one million children every year (Rasul, 2006, 1). In the United Kingdom, another industrialized region, forty-one percent of marriages end up in divorce within fourteen years (Lamb, Sternberg, & Thompson, 1997, 394). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã While divorce rates also increased in industrialized countries other than the United States, and the divorce rates in the United States already reached a plateau, the fact remains that the United States Bureau of Census estimated in 1992 that more than forty percent of first marriages in the country is bound to end in divorce. Moreover, the relative decline in divorce rates is accompanied by an equivalent effect, which is the number of people cohabiting without marriage and nonmarital child bearing. These other arrangements cause the decline in divorce, but end in the same situation of a broken family. (Emery, Sbarra & Grover, 2005, 22). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The increase in divorce rates can also be attributed to the certain developments since the 1970s, which include the growing tolerance of society for divorce. Moreover, society is no longer strictly insistent on the maintenance of stereotypical family arrangements (DÃ¢â¬â¢Errico & Elwork, 1991, 104). Changes in Family Law. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As a consequence of these dramatic changes, changes in the field of family law also occur. These changes can be found both in substantive and procedural law (DÃ¢â¬â¢Errico & Elwork, 1991, 104-105). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Substantive law has changed due to observations of the effects of restrictive and punitive laws on divorce. Thus, many jurisdictions already steered away from the rule that one of the spouses must have committed some transgression before they can be granted divorce. Now, the prevalent rule in most jurisdictions is in accordance with the Ã¢â¬Å"no-faultÃ¢â¬ doctrine. This doctrine allows married couples to file for divorce on the simple ground of Ã¢â¬Å"irreconcilable differences (DÃ¢â¬â¢Errico & Elwork, 1991, 104).Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another change in substantive law and policy can be found in the gender-neutral stance taken by courts in cases of divorce. The past decades illustrated a bias, manifested in the assumption that mothers have more inherent capability to take care of their children. Today, such an assumption is no longer strongly held. Rather, courts are now showing neutrality in gender and the determination of a family law case now hinges on the consideration of the Ã¢â¬Å"best interests of the child (DÃ¢â¬â¢Errico & Elwork, 1991, 104-105).Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another change in substantial law and policy is manifested in the observation that there is a growing predilection over self-determined divorce and child custody arrangements. This trend of change is largely attributable to the belief that divorce is a private matter that must be left amongst them to be resolved. This belief is a break away from the previous prevailing thought about the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in protecting the sanctity of marriage through the regulation of its dissolution (DÃ¢â¬â¢Errico & Elwork, 1991, 104). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã These changes in substantive law on divorce and family law necessarily caused changes in the procedural aspect of the law. Thus, the increased ease by which couples could seek divorce and the option of individualizing post divorce arrangements heavily increased the dockets of courts with divorce cases. This led the courts to encourage divorcing couples to find other alternative means of resolving their issues (DÃ¢â¬â¢Errico & Elwork, 1991, 105). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are also other factors that make alternative means of resolving family disputes and divorce issues more appealing. The lack of necessity for proving fault in a divorce action removed the need to adjudicate family issues. Moreover, the removal of the presumption in favor of the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s capability to care for the child involved courts into making a determination about vague issues, such as love and care, which could be difficult to measure in a court setting. These factors all contributed to the growing popularity of other modes of dispute resolution, such as mediation (DÃ¢â¬â¢Errico & Elwork, 1991, 105). Divorce Mediation. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One such alternative mode of dispute resolution recently applied in family law is mediation. Thus, divorce mediation, under which process a neutral third party intervenes to help the couple settle their differences through negotiation, receives the most attention lately (DÃ¢â¬â¢Errico & Elwork, 1991, 105) especially among parents who wish to get divorced (Emery, Sbarra & Grover, 2005, 22). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When applied to help couples arrive at self-determined arrangements on matters of divorce and child custody, mediation is believed to cause four benefits, namely, Ã¢â¬Å"(a) more satisfaction with the terms of agreements, (b) greater compliance with agreements, (c) less postdivorce conflict between ex-spouses, and (d) better postdivorce emotional adjustment (DÃ¢â¬â¢Errico & Elwork, 1991, 105).Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Indeed, mediation posed itself as a solution to the ever-increasing rates of divorce in the Untied States, as well as an alternative to ineffective and traditional methods of dispute settlement, such as litigation (Emery, Sbarra & Grover, 2005, 22). Mediation is becoming the alternative method of dispute resolution of choice since it provides professional help to divorces, which have a high probability of getting acrimonious. Thus, there are only few couples that could manage to suffer a divorce in amicable terms. In a survey of two California counties, it was found that 24 percent of divorces therein required professional intervention, while 25 percent involved intense conflict (Emery, Sbarra & Grover, 2005, 23). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Mediation is also popular among couples seeking divorce because unlike court action or litigation, it has the ability to facilitate administration of justice and reduce cost, specifically in terms of money and time. Moreover, adversary settlement procedures are now believed to cause problems involving post separation family relationships, arising from parental conflict and divorce. (Emery, Sbarra & Grover, 2005, 23). Comparison of Divorce Mediation and Adversary Settlement. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is not uncommon for mediation to get compared from other forms of dispute settlement, such as adversary settlement. In a study conducted by Emery, Sbarra and Grover, a comparison was made between mediation and adversary settlement through random assignment (2005, 25). They randomly approached families that were interested in contested custody hearing and offered them a mediation program as an eleventh hour settlement attempt (Emery, Sbarra & Grover, 2005, 25). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This study yielded positive results with respect to the time of settlement of issues. Thus, the authors found that cases assigned to mediation were settled in half the time that settlement using adversary settlement occurred. On the other hand, there are other studies that conclude that mediation is better over adversary settlement in terms of cost, because the former is less expensive than the latter. In addition, it was observed that there is a Ã¢â¬Å"trend for greater compliance with child support orders among nonresidential parents who mediatedÃ¢â¬ (Emery, Sbarra & Grover, 2005, 27). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã They also observed that there are more families coming from mediation that go back in order to update or change their existing arrangements. The authors view this in a positive light, saying that parenting plans should be viewed as living agreements that must be changed in accordance with corresponding changes in the stakeholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ lives. Such changes are best made by going back to the mediation process (Emery, Sbarra & Grover, 2005, 27). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In addition, Emery, Sbarra and Grover noticed in the follow-up sessions to their study that most of their subjects who belonged to the mediation group were more open to the idea or suggestion of changing their original agreements. They are also the ones who actually adjusted their arrangements more often than those subjects who belonged to the adversary system (Emery, Sbarra & Grover, 2005, 28). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The authors noted that the willingness of the subjects to modify their original arrangements, coupled with the actual facts of modification, is a positive finding. Aside from the fact that the changes had been far from chaotic, they prove that parents who underwent mediation had become more flexible in accommodating changes that are important in the lives of their children and their own (Emery, Sbarra & Grover, 2005, 28). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The authors also looked into another factor to compare mediation with the adversary process. This factor is party satisfaction. They noted that each kind of method of dispute settlement has certain strengths. For example, the adversary systemÃ¢â¬â¢s known strength is that it ensures that the rights of both parties are protected. On the other hand, mediation is known for being more understanding of the feelings of the parties involved (Emery, Sbarra & Grover, 2005, 28). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã However, this main difference, which had looked so glaring before study, disappeared in view of the results that showed that mediation consistently got high rates of party satisfaction over the adversary system, even if the assessment was based on the criterion that is known for being the strength of such system. More importantly, the authors observed that such high rate of party satisfaction remains relatively unchanged among different time durations. Thus, a party may be satisfied with mediation six weeks after mediation, but surprisingly, parties remain satisfied even after a period of more than a year (Emery, Sbarra & Grover, 2005, 28). Important Elements of Mediation. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Mediation remains on the top of the list of effective methods of dispute settlement, especially in divorce rates, because it boasts of certain elements that ensure the processÃ¢â¬â¢ success. One such element is its capability of enlisting the cooperation of parents in order to take the long view, and consider the best interests of their children in the future (Emery, Sbarra & Grover, 2005, 32). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Considering that divorce cases often involve high conflict, open hostility, and tension, it is difficult to call upon parents to cooperate with each other. However, mediation allows parents to take a look at the future of their relationship, maybe not as a couple, but as permanent parents (Emery, Sbarra & Grover, 2005, 32). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Mediation is also effective in educating divorcing parents and couples about emotions. These emotions involve not only those felt by the couple involved, but more importantly, those of their child or children. There are several techniques by which the goal of emotional education can be achieved, but one effective way is through the mediatorÃ¢â¬â¢s reflection of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s possible emotional reactions to the crisis situation using his self as a medium. For example, the mediator could say how uncomfortable and scary an experience becomes when the couple starts fighting each other. Thus, mediation allows parents to realize that their bickering actually affects the emotions of people around them, and thereby stop thinking about themselves. It is apparent therefore that mediation does not necessarily provide therapy for the emotional problems of the parties, but it allows them to understand the feelings and emotions involved in order to help them control such emotions in the best possible way and, in the process, achieve a good plan for the family (Emery, Sbarra & Grover, 2005, 33). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Finally, mediation is an effective process because it helps parties avoid treating each other as adversaries. A business-like approach such as the one commonly used in mediation allows the parties to approach issues in a distant and less emotional state. Moreover, not treating each other as adversaries avoids the road to strained relationships that only cause the wounds of the divorce to get worse (Emery, Sbarra & Grover, 2005, 34). Effects of Divorce on Children Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The trend in favor of divorce and single parenthood in industrialized countries has raised concerns about the effects of such family arrangements to children involved. Unfortunately for children, divorce often leads to negative immediate effects, such as serious emotional and psychological disturbance. Considering that psychological symptoms such as emotional disturbance, loneliness, depression, anger, helplessness, and many others are common among the parents or couples involved, it should be expected that such negative effects would be experienced more severely by the children trapped inside the crisis (Lamb, Sternberg, & Thompson, 1997, 394). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is worth noting that the difficulty of children in dealing with their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ divorce is aggravated by the fact that the parents involved in the crisis are often too preoccupied with their personal emotions such that they fail to give much-needed support to their children. Worse, these parents often fall in the temptation to make too much demand that worsen the situation for their children (Lamb, Sternberg, & Thompson, 1997, 395). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another problem common to children in divorce situations is the economic problem brought about by the need to maintain two separate residences, and the common situation of mothers who are more economically-challenged than the fathers. However, such situation is avoided or minimized in cases where the parents resolve their conflicts and work out a way of providing for the educational, emotional, and economic needs of their children (Lamb, Sternberg, & Thompson, 1997, 395-396). Conclusion. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Divorce and single parenting is increasingly becoming common in industrialized regions such as the United States and the United Kingdom. This trend is caused by several factors and, in turn, causes several issues, practices, and concerns in many different levels, such as the family, children, substantive and procedural law, and alternative dispute resolution mechanisms (Rasul, 2006, 1; DÃ¢â¬â¢Errico & Elwork, 1991, 104). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Divorce causes deleterious effects on the parties. However, the negative impact of divorce is more squarely felt by the affected children who, in their tender age, are forced into adjusting and coping with the emotional stress and burden necessitated by divorce proceedings (Lamb, Sternberg, & Thompson, 1997, 394). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Such hardships could be minimized by different factors, such as cooperation between parents in providing emotional, economic and educational support to their children. Parents also have the option of minimizing or totally avoiding antagonism and hostility in the divorce proceedings by choosing to undergo mediation rather than court litigation. Indeed, mediation provides many advantages and avoids the stress involved in court action (Emery, Sbarra & Grover, 2005, 22). References DÃ¢â¬â¢Errico, M. G. & Elwork, A. (1991). Are Self-Determined Divorce and Child Custody Ã Ã Agreements Really Better? Family and Conciliation Courts Review 29(2), 104-Ã Ã 113.Ã Emery, R. E., Sbarra, D. & Grover, T. (2005). Divorce Mediation: Research and Reflections. Family Court Review 43(1), 22-37.Ã Lamb, M. E., Sternberg, K. J., & Thompson, R. A. (1997). The Effects of Divorce and Ã Custody Arrangements on ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Behavior, Development, and Adjustment. Ã Ã Ã Ã Family and Conciliation Courts Review 35(4), 393-404.Ã Rasul, I. (2006). The Economics of Child Custody. Economica 73, 1-25.