Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Macbeth Vs Hamlet :: essays research papers

Proposal: Shakespeare utilized a similar meaning of catastrophe when he composed Macbeth, and when he composed Hamlet; Shakespearean disasters utilize heavenly occurrences to interest the peruser's advantage, and his plays comprise of a saint that has an unfortunate defect (at times the need for the otherworldly) which makes him make a lethal mistake.I. Presentation II. Spirits III. Correlation IV. End Shakespeare consistently utilized similar components of catastrophe when he composed his disasters. These disasters can be thought about effectively, particularly Macbet and Hamlet. Shakespearean disasters utilize extraordinary episodes to interest the peruser's advantage, and they comprise of a saint that has a shocking defect (some of the time the longing for the heavenly) which makes him commit a deadly error. Shakespeare followed this example in the entirety of his disasters; thusly the likenesses among Macbeth and Hamlet can without much of a stretch be characterized and discussed .Shakespeare quickly began Macbeth with a heavenly scene. The three witches set the grave and underhandedness tone of the plot. In Hamlet, Shakespeare likewise introduced an extraordinary event near the opening. The phantom of Hamlet's dad introduced itself to Hamlet with a chilling story. In the two circumstances, the unfortunate legend was uncertain about whether the spirits were acceptable or insidious. The introduction of the heavenly started to prompt the last destruction of every one of the characters. In Macbeth, the three witches made him think and carry out malevolence things. In the event that he had never met the witches, he would not have been enticed to kill the ruler; consequently, he would not have set himself in the position that he believed he expected to murder each and every individual who crossed his way. In the event that he wasn't so deceptive, Macduff would not have called for war, and he would not have killed him. In Hamlet, on the off chance that he had not seen the phantom of his dad, he would not have realized that the prevailing lord had submitted murder to pick up the seat.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Human Resources - High performance work Practices Essay

HR - High execution work Practices - Essay Example â€Å"High execution work spots or associations (HPWOs) are associations that are moving towards a compliment and less various leveled structure, where individuals work in groups with more noteworthy autonomy.† (Tamkin, 2004). Be that as it may, in some cases the association won't have the option to give High execution work puts because of different elements. This will definitely cut down the degree of execution among the representatives to absolute minimum. The significant perspective is, the presentation levels of the workers must be kept at ideal levels or elevated levels, with the goal that the representatives show ideal profitability. In this way, this paper will take a gander at how the employees’ execution can be uplifted by upgrading the High execution work places, in this way helping the businesses just as the representatives, sort of win-win arrangement: profiting both the businesses and the workers When a typical, achievable and powerful High execution work places is made, various representatives can be centered around a solitary objective and along these lines expanding their presentation level. As any association will be a hotbed of human action, it could offer ascent to gatherings and subgroups, which will in the end share enough understanding to make subcultures dependent on word related, national, and particularly memorable encounters. When such separation has occurred, the organisation’s task is to discover methods of planning, adjusting, or incorporating the various subcultures into regular culture by making them work in a typical hierarchical environment. In this way, execution among the representatives can be streamlined at the beginning itself, just if the pioneer or chief of the association gives the representatives a good High exhibition work place with a typical hierarchical culture, concentrating on a solitary objective. â€Å"Support culture, which incorp orate execution tasks and individuals the executives forms, adjusted to hierarchical goals to assemble trust, enthusiasms and commitment.† (Tamkin, 2004). The quality of

Friday, August 7, 2020

Intentional Relationships

Intentional Relationships Our relationship with food is complicated: you can get by without paying attention to food and its influence  on your life, but those who do recognize the effect  their diet has on every other aspect of their livesâ€"and who act upon that knowledgeâ€"tend to be more fulfilled on multiple levels. We can optimize our intake for vitamins and raw materials, ingesting our daily regimen in the form of sludge and pills like survivors in a dystopian future wholl take what they can get. Or we can magnify our enjoyment of our meals, homing in on the flavors that tantalize our tongues and flood us with pleasure chemicals, dismissing completely the health-related repercussions involved, because, after all, you only live once. We can also ignore what we eat completely, buying whatevers cheap, whatevers nearby, whatever is in the most brightly colored packages. We can pile a random assortment of things onto our plates and shovel it into our mouths, our minds never focused on the act, a little bit irritated that we have to take the time to do even that much. An intentional diet is different: it strikes a balance between the two extremes in that first exampleâ€"it  allows us to experience pleasure through the act of eating, while also enjoying the long-term benefits of healthy consumption. Unlike the second example, being conscious of what we eat reshapes something that could be a passive, drudgerous activity and makes it engaging, makes it worthwhileâ€"it makes it something we look forward to, and something we improve over time. Like our relationships with food, our relationships with other human beings can be complicated. We can optimize these relationships, reading self-help books and reducing the exercise to a math equation with numbers to carry and symbols to draw, all of them cloaking the complexity of something thats difficult to explain in formulae and numerals. We can hurl ourselves into the experience of knowing someone, perhaps quite intimately, without understanding how the process works or what exactly were feeling in the first place. Enjoying the moment, but never exploring how we interact with others beyond those moments. We can also ignore our relationships, accepting that they are a necessary component of our lives to some degree, but never investigating to see what role these connections might play  in our happiness, our education, our personalities, our growth, our stability. Intentionality means paying attention: It means doing things on purposeâ€"not passively, not reflexively, not because we have to. Doing something with the intention of getting as much out of it as possible, whatever that happens to mean in context. With food, it means ensuring youre eating well in the sense that youre intaking what your body needs, youre enjoying the process of eating rather than considering it a torturous undertaking, and youre eating in a way thats sustainable: not over-using resources, not eating too much or too little, not making it the only thing in your life, not relegating it to the role of a background character on your personal stage.  A balanced relationship. With people, intentionality is similar: It means striking a balance thats both sustainable and enjoyable. It means bringing other people into your life in a way thats healthyâ€"not co-dependent, but not isolating. Not trying to trick the system with gimmicks and acts, but not ignoring how you might improve your approach to meeting and interacting with others, either. Improving your connections, yes; but doing so based on strict instructions offered by someone with different needs and goals, no. Every relationship is different, as is every single persons needs: Some people opt for a more traditional, archetypal arrangement (whatever that might mean for the culture in which they were raised), while others aim for something slightly off-center. Still others prefer something so different from the norm that their model doesnt have a name yet. Whatever the case may be for you, consider how your relationships might be more intentional, more customized, for you and your needs. And then act upon that knowledge. Because although its wonderful to intend to be intentional, wanting to improve upon something is only putting on your shoesâ€"at some point you must step out the door and walk toward the goal youve identified. Colin Wrights new book, Some Thoughts About Relationships, is a book for people who want it all when it comes to relationships: something tailor-made for their unique beliefs, goals, desires, and lifestyles. It also includes a special foreword by Joshua Fields Millburn.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Role of Leadership Theory in Raising the Profile of...

Leadership Title: The role of leadership theory in raising the profile of Women in Management. The article is founded on the concept of leadership and the varied conceptions that have been propagated on the same since the early 11930s to the contemporary times. The focus is majorly on the shaping up of the leadership theories over time to come and converge at the pivotal position of women in management. Leadership is described here as the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable other to contribute towards effectiveness and success of the organization of which they are members (Uma D Glenice J, 2006: Pp237). There are however earlier forces within management that did not seem to support this contemporary definition as depicted in the essay. The early leadership theory has the proposition of the great man theory that shifted the attention of leadership from women and focused it on men since in the 1930s women were not visible in the paid employment but predominated the domestic care systems. The scholars in leadership and management grappled with the idea o f a single definition of leadership and the authors indicate that it was by incorporating the two approaches of people centeredness and production concerns that effective leadership could be achieved. Types of leadership were defined but most of them were male oriented as the article indicates. Firstly the autocratic eldership which was use of power to force followership was seen asShow MoreRelatedLeadership Effectiveness: Style and Ethics800 Words   |  4 PagesLeadership Effectiveness: Style and Ethics Culture is a powerful force in organizations. Leaders must build and share a vision with followers which is ripe for the culture and current climate. Leaders must also recognize when an organization’s culture no longer supports the mission. Target Corporate Target is a corporate pillar in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Target’s mission is, â€Å"to make Target your preferred shopping destination in all channels by delivering outstanding value, continuous innovationRead MoreWilliam Chaucer s The Wife Of Bath1347 Words   |  6 Pages Women Progressing Over the years, some may argue that literature has progressed into a better manner or for the worst. In British literature, motifs vary throughout the multiple time periods, such as the Anglo-Saxon Era, Medieval Era, to the Age of Reason period; moreover, motifs have changed out of the regular and accustomed angelic Christian that has to repent and believe in God. British literature begins to introduce a new archetype for women that writers follow in stories by describing themRead MoreThe Inequality Between Men And Women2479 Words   |  10 Pagesbetween men and women that has taken place in organizations for multiple years in history. Women are facing many challenges with trying to be viewed as equals among their male counterparts, but these challenges are nothing that a woman will be able to change on her own. The question is why is it so hard for gender diversity to be incorporated into the work place, but not only that is how can it actually being to make a difference for all w omen employees in every organization. Women are just as educatedRead MoreWomen in Leadership2929 Words   |  12 PagesWOMEN IN LEADERSHIP Sofia Baka BSC 407 The Effective Organization Vesselin Todorov Research Paper March 13, 2008 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.1 1. WHAT IS LEADERSHIP? †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..1 1.1 General Information†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..1 2. WOMEN IN LEADERSHIP†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦2 3. LEADER EFFECTIVENESS †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..2 3.1 Effecting Change in Women Leadership†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..5 3.2 What are the characteristics of effectiveRead MoreLeadership Profile, Jane Goodall4664 Words   |  19 PagesPersonal Leadership Profile Abstract The following report is a reflective a case study of Jane Goodall, the influential leader who I admire. I have analyze the various dimensions of the Jane Goodall’s strengths and limitations through data collections from reputable sources, evaluating her personal traits, behavioral styles, situational responsiveness, communication skills ,and other dimensions of leadership. I have also evaluated my own strengths and limitations of these same dimensions, compilingRead MoreWomen Entrepreneurs: a Critical Review of the Literature12149 Words   |  49 PagesIncreasing numbers of women are becoming leaders of their own businesses, and many are struggling to achieve success. A growing body of theory and research is exploring how different women come to business ownership, their unique leadership challenges and strategies for success, their personal change and the processes of leadership development they experience. This paper reviews literature addressing women business owners from the general perspective of understanding their leadership. Within this frameRead MoreHow Feminists Have Made Countless Advancements For Women3690 Words   |  15 Pagesago, the United States government did not allow women the right to vote. The 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1920 provided all citizens, regardless of gender, the opportunity to exercise this right. While this is a commonly known fact, it was only 47 years ago that a woman was not permitted to run in the Boston Marathon. The feminist movement was directly responsible for pivotal changes in our country. The belief that men and women should have access to equal rights and opportunitiesRead MoreThe Impact of Path-Goal Leadership Styles on Work Group5648 Words   |  23 PagesThe Impact of Path-Goal Leadership Styles on Work Group Effectiveness and Turnover Intention Marva L Dixon,  Ã‚  Laura Kozloski Hart.  Ã‚  Journal of Managerial Issues.   Pittsburg:Spring 2010.   Vol. 22,   Iss. 1,   p.  52-69,6-7  (20  pp.) | Abstract (Summary) Leaders continuously seek to improve organizational performance and enhance work group effectiveness to drive competitiveness and curtail the cost of employee turnover. The diversity of many work groups in the U.S. creates potential benefits and challengesRead MoreAreas of Knowledge of Hrm11342 Words   |  46 Pages INTRODUCTION Important changes in the understanding and management of Human Resources have been developed in the past 10 to 15 years. Various researchers, practitioners and policymakers now acknowledge that Human Resources can be conceptualized from a functional perspective and that appropriate interventions involve the development of alternative measures to cope up. It was also noted that the establishment of a conducive working environment for learning and training have served effectively inRead MoreBoard Dynamics and the Inï ¬â€šuence of Professional Background, Gender and Ethnic Diversity of Directors11390 Words   |  46 Pagesdynamics, social network ties Introduction W *This paper was presented at the 5th International Conference on Corporate Governance and Direction, 8–10 October 2002, at the Centre for Board Effectiveness, Henley Management College. ** Address for correspondence: Department of Management and International Business, Massey University, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand. Tel: 649 443 9799; Fax: 649 441 8109. orld events, challenges and social trends of the past two decades have forced changes in the composition

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Discursive Essay - The British Monarchy - 1436 Words

God Save the Green: Are the Royal Family a Luxury we can no Longer Afford? Cheers rise from the jubilant crowd as the crowning moment we’ve all been waiting for finally arrives. Thousands fill the Mall, craning their necks as Queen Elizabeth II steps out onto her balcony, offering a smile to her adoring subjects. Clad in her bedazzled hat, she surveys the scene: a vast sea of British flags, frantic in their support of sixty years on the throne, waving in time to a raucous rendition of God Save the Queen. It probably never entered anyone’s heads that the funding was taken from their taxes as they donned absurd red, white and blue creations in the name of patriotism. No one asked how much it was costing. Or who was paying for the†¦show more content†¦The Trust is designed to benefit countries in the Commonwealth, and ‘deliver iconic projects †¦ that are a fitting and enduring tribute to Her Majesty the Queen’, according to their website. These include investments in areas such as sport for youths, helping the disabled, and protecting our country’s heritage. Whether or not the money was raised seems to be an undisclosed matter, perhaps a stark indication that the profit they originally anticipated wasn’t reached. The fact that the Diamond Jubilee is being celebrated worldwide perhaps shows what a prominent figure the Queen is the whole world over. Maybe that has gone to her head, as it is no doubt her British loyalists paying for the commuting and security for her. Why should we cough up so she can swan off to Timbuktu or the like? Perhaps she’s caught onto the fact that her position isn’t quite what it used to be when the monarchy could order a criminal to be beheaded as easily as calling their maid for a cup of tea. Perhaps she’s upset now that she has so few powers, besides handing out awards to heroes and celebrities. She even had a role in the James Bond sketch for the Olympics to boost her appeal. It’s sad to see what antics the old dear has been reduced to just to gain public appreciation, but then again, maybe it’s time she paid attentionShow MoreRelatedEssay on Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures4270 Words   |  18 Pagespresented st rong arguments for relating the ?institutionalisation and subsequent valorisation of English literary study [to] a shape and an ideological content developed in the colonial context?, and specifically as it developed in India, where: British colonial administrators, provoked by missionaries on the one hand and fears of native insubordination on the other, discovered an ally in English literature to support them in maintaining control of the natives under the guise of a liberal educationRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 PagesPHILADELPHIA Temple University Press 1601 North Broad Street Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 www.temple.edu/tempress Copyright  © 2010 by Temple University All rights reserved Published 2010 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Essays on twentieth century history / edited by Michael Peter Adas for the American Historical Association. p. cm.—(Critical perspectives on the past) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-1-4399-0269-1 (cloth : alk. paper)—ISBN 978-1-4399-0270-7Read MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagestrademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any affiliation with or endorsement of this book by such owners. ISBN-13: 978-0-273-68774-0 ISBN-10: 0-273-68774-3 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data McAuley, John, FIPD. Organization theory : challenges and perspectives / John McAuley, Joanne Duberley, Phil Johnson. p. cm. Includes bibliographical

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

School Based Assessment for Learning Free Essays

School Based Assessment for Learning: A report: Assuring Fairness in the assessment component of school based assessment practice in Brunei Abstract This article describes a research project study in depth carried out with 3 self-selected ‘educators’ teaching English language subject in one of the secondary school in Brunei. All are supporting standardized task provided requires flexibility to cater the students’ need individually. The paper explores the educators’ conceptions of and approaches to school based assessment in relation to their teaching. We will write a custom essay sample on School Based Assessment for Learning or any similar topic only for you Order Now It sets the discussion in the context of ‘assessment for learning’ and the literature on students’ learning in general and raising students’ achievement in particular. Drawing out a number of key themes arising from the study, I compare and contrast these with the existing literature. Finally I examine some implications of this assessment for learners’ development, and ways in which we could support learners in fostering their learning to achieve the aims of the education system of the 21st century. The researcher is seeing at different perspective of school based assessment for learning and if assessment is made for learners it should cater with different needs of each learner. Keywords: School-Based Assessment for Learners, Brunei Common Assessment Task, pedagogy, standardized 1. Introduction: School Based Assessment School Based Assessment for Learning (SBAfL) is an assessment for learning tool which focuses on obtaining feedback on individual student’s development and performance in the four important domains highlighted in SPN21. Brunei is moving towards the changes as learner is seen as a main player in education, hence to support the changes towards assessment for learning; Brunei Common Assessment Task (BCAT) is implemented. The idea of the introducing BCAT is to make a transition or pedagogical shift between the old system to a new format SBAfL ‘School-Based Assessment for Learners’ instead ‘of learners’. In order to ease the transition, the curriculum department introduced BCAT, standardized SBAfL test. This paper therefore examines / aims to highlight significant aspect of school based assessment or learning and the lapses in existing practices. â€Å"Assessment for learning is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning, where they need to go and how best to get there. † Assessment Reform Group (2002) 2. 1 Objectives or purposes of SBAfL The rationale behind school-based asses sment We first can start by looking at the overseas. Internationally, particularly in the West, many countries and almost all the examination boards have introduced school-based assessment. In fact, some countries, SBA contributes to 100% of the total assessment of the students. Typically, however, in countries such as Australia and the UK, it contributes about 50%. So, you must ask that: why have these countries and increasingly, why are other countries now following this example and introducing SBA? First of all, the reason is to improve validity. It is to ensure that we can assess the full range of outcomes relevant to our subject. And this is to ensure that we are assessing those things that we are really value. But, there is another side of it; people often think that there is a bit of a trade-off between validity and reliability. Actually, what we know is that when school-based assessment is done properly, it can also contribute to reliability too. In other words, it can be ensure that the student has a more accurate assessment of their ability. Sometimes more accurate than can be obtained from a one-shot examination. So these are some of the reasons why we move to school-based assessment. 2. Review of Related Literature The main research question is ‘to what extend school based assessment help students’ learning with the implementation of Brunei Common Assessment Task (standardized tasks)? Does standardized task could be used for all students? ’ The main theme identified from the previous introduction is the rationale of school based assessment. In literature part, I intended to review the significant of school-based assessment towards students’ learning. Prior to gathering the literature, I produced a list of necessary references and resources to cite from. These resources include library books, internet, journal articles, magazines and electronic books. The first step was a big step because it was not easy to locate the literature. In researching the literature, attention was drawn to the keywords: assessment task, assessment for learning, and standardised assessment. 3. 2 Assessment tasks Assessment and schooling go hand in hand. The assessment of learners and learning is a regular practice in education and are used to determine how far learners have learnt or mastered an educational task or knowledge or how well an educational process has addressed its set objectives. Anikweze (2005: 2) precisely refers to Assessment as â€Å"the process of investigating the status or standard of learners’ attainment, with reference to expected outcomes that must have been specified as objectives† when it concerns learners’ output. Njabili, Abedi, Magesse and Kalole (2005:2) add that â€Å"The fundamental role of Assessment is to provide authentic and meaningful feedback for improving student learning, instructional practice and educational options† which means that Assessment is not and so should not be seen as an end it itself but a means to a justifiable end of learning†. the student’s point of view matters because of its effect on learning. From the student’s point of view, classroom assessment information is not merely information â€Å"about† himself or herself. Rather, it forms a major part of his or her learning life, becoming part of the lessons he or she is expected to learn, the relationship he or s he has with the teacher and the subject matter, and relationships with peers. (Brookhart, 2003, p. 6) 3. 3 Fairness in School Based Assessment Among recent trends around the globe, is the concern on fairness in matters concerning the various issues in education. In some contexts, Fairness and Equity are used synonymously. Fairness or equal opportunity in assessment relates to two issues: â€Å"†¦ fairness in . . . comparison: in essence, have the groups †¦ being tested had the same opportunity to learn? † (Uwakwe, 2005: p4). Teachers are professional and know their students best. So they can compare their students’ work done inside or outside the classroom. Then they can authenticate whether the students themselves have done the work. In this way the authenticity of SBA is guaranteed and students’ abilities can be accurately reflected. Assessment and grading procedures had the effect helping some students succeed now must serve to help all students succeed. The ‘Including all learners’ statement should be used by settings/schools to look at their existing arrangements and identify good practice. â€Å"Assessment ‘as Learning’ is a Professional Obligation in a previous system. Assessment for learning (AfL) should be Celebration of Learning – students should involve not abundant process† (Rick and Doug, 2008). 3. Research Design It will generally give the overview of the research design, methodology, method, selection of research participants, and data collection. The details of data account will be presented in the later part of this report. I had outlined a research focus and constructed the main research question aligned with the qualitative methodology. I had chosen semi-structured interviews for my data collection because it suited with the nature of my study. Three participants were recruited for the research. I developed understanding of the issues which emerged in the research from the coding frame after analysing the data collected using the grounded analysis procedures. Finally, I presented the extracts based on the participants’ transcripts. . 4 Main Research Question: The Brunei Common Assessment Tasks (BCATs) currently implemented in schools are formal, standardized and moderated assessment tasks that familiarise teachers and students with Assessment for Learning (AfL) best practises. Over time, teachers are expected to develop their own SBAfL tasks to better cater to the varied abilities and needs for their students. The m ain research question is ‘to what extend ‘SBAfL help students’ learning with the implementation of Brunei Common Assessment Task (standardized tasks)? 4. 5 Choice of Methodology The methodology that I selected and employed throughout the research is qualitative. I chose qualitative because it is fundamentally different from quantitative methods. This qualitative research methodology puts my research in a good position because I want to gain meaning and understanding of teachers’ experience stored, improved and implemented for future practices. This methodology I used requires special equipment to record and transcribe to gather and analyse the data in-depth. Therefore, the qualitative perspective emphasises on the ‘depth of the understanding’ of the study. 4. 6 Sampling The sample involved 3 teachers who taught English language in one of the secondary schools in Bandar Seri Begawan. Considering their background of teaching experience, each teacher has taught English language at different length/duration in experience of teaching. Three teachers which I recognise as teacher A, teacher B who has taught 13 years in English language and teacher C which is a new experience teacher taught English subject. 4. 7 Limitation of Study There are shortcomings, conditions or influences that cannot be controlled that place restrictions on the methodology and conclusions that I have chosen. Even though the report finished on time, it does not mean that I did not face any problem in doing this research. Initially, I intended to interview some students to see the overview, real-classroom situation. However, with school activities these students had to involved, it was difficult to gather these students to willingly involve in this study within the constraint time. Another difficulty I faced was, no permission was given in collecting students’ mark as the academic staff seen this as case sensitive. The idea was to view the overall and breakdown results of a chosen class as a reason to see students’ progress and development when onducting assessment. 4. The Account In line with the research question to investigate the students’ learning with the implementation of Brunei Common Assessment Task (standardized task) in supporting assessment for learning, teachers were asked their views and experiences in conducting school-based assessment. Figure 1: This fi gure shows Coding Frame which indicates issues arise during the grounded analysis study. Two nodes were highly discussed; teacher’s view on school based assessment and impact of standardised Brunei Common Assessment Task (BCAT) for learners. The figure indicates number of times by which it is frequently mentioned by the participants, on both teachers’ view and the implication of the standardised task. When linkage as I observed it seems that the standardised BCAT is unconstructive for low achievers and all samples were agreed the assessment practice is quite summative. To make it easier to see account frequently mentioned by each participants, I breakdown the findings into Teacher A, Teacher B, and Teacher C. See graph: From the findings, all participants mentioned that assessment for learning (AfL) are beneficial for the learners. From the graph, it says AfL are helpful for higher achievers, and could improve group of average students in their learning: â€Å"The feedback of the assessment helps them in improving. The weak students for some help them. For others it’s still struggle. † Teacher B On the other hand, another participant describes that standardized BCAT is unconstructive for low achievers: â€Å"My comments on this may not affect the whole scenario, because my year 7K, very special class that can’t read and can’t write so I’m struggling with them. So, standardized BCAT is not for them. It is wonderful test paper, the middle set and the top set is more relevant to them. If SBAfL, teacher are given freedom to do their own SBAfL, it will be much better, for me and for my students because I know their level and I know what to prepare for them. But the rules said it must be standardized, I couldn’t do anything†¦. So, BCAT wasn’t really helpful for them, for particular class. â€Å" Teacher A The participant seems to relate that standardized BCAT or assessment practice is quite summative and less helpful to cater students’ need: â€Å"In the test or during the test, I have to help them, as most of them will get zero. The student and the teacher couldn’t cope the extensive syllabus. The syllabus is so huge, even by selecting few pieces in the textbook didn’t help because by the end of the day I have to go to the basic spelling, writing, reading, and the teacher had to forget about the grammar, spelling first. We need to focus on the other skills. Teacher A 5. Discussion Following, the details of data account will be analysed, interpreted and discussed. There are two significant points that emerged from these findings. I integrate the key issue into one significant aspect which deal with the obstacles that the teachers face in conducting ‘assessment for learning’ in relation to standardised BCAT for learners as to answer the main research question 5. 1 Discussion of assessment for learning in supporting lower achiever While the literature review gave a general picture on the roles of assessment, the finding have revealed that the challenging questions of how teacher conducting common assessment task. Since SBA is a new mode of assessment, education policy provides teachers with the assessment criteria and a series of examples to illustrate the standards. They also provide training for teachers. All these measures will ensure standardization among teachers. Teachers know their own students, but may not know the standards of students in other schools, there may be discrepancies in the assessment of a student’s performance by teachers from different school. The participants argued that there are reasons why assessment and grading procedures had the effect only helping some students succeed. Assessment for learning should not be seen as a professional obligation for the students if we want to achieve the aim of the education system. A view expressed by a participant shows that ‘including all learners’ statement should be used by settings/schools to look at their existing arrangements and identify good practice. Common assessment task shows very little indications what students could actually do in real world or situation; content-based assessment task less constructive in promoting critical thinking and skills needed by the nation. Hence, project-based does necessary happen and performance-based assessment. Conclusion If we are serious about raising student achievement, we have to change what happens in the classroom to enable all learners to access relevant skills, knowledge and understanding at an appropriate level. Schools may select content from or any key stage within the curriculum and use it flexibly, together with the skills framework given. In order to provide a meaningful relevant and motivating curriculum for their learners, meet the specific needs of their learners and further their all-round development. Recommendation: the need of flexibility It is recommended that flexible assessment activities is needed to cater the needs of different students and allow them to be assessed effectively. I would like to take this one step further and suggest that, there is a need of flexibility in assessing students’ task by considering level of the students, settings/schools must work to provide an inclusive curriculum which offers opportunities for all learners to achieve and contribute to today’s multi-ethnic. Arrangements for monitoring and evaluating the curriculum should be set out in school policy documents. The full range of professionals, learners and parents/carers can play a part to evaluate the effectiveness of the whole curriculum in the longer term. Standardization is helpful to cater some groups of students, however with the extensive syllabus; weaker students could not cope with too many common assessment tasks. Therefore there is a need to reduce number of common assessment task to be beneficial for access relevant skills, knowledge and understanding In order to provide a meaningful relevant and motivating curriculum for all learners. Reference: * Black, P. and William, D. (2001). Inside the black box. Raising standards through classroom assessment. http://www. pdkintl. org/kappan/kbla9810. htm * Black, P ; Wiliam, D 1998, ‘Assessment and Classroom Learning’, Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, March, vol 5, no 1, pp 7-74. * Educational Leadership February 2000 Number: What Do We Mean by Results Using Rubrics to Promote Thinking and Learning Volume 57 Pages 13-18. Retrieved February 1, 2013, from http://www. pbs. org/teacherline/courses/rdla230/docs/session_2_andrade. pdf * Glasson, T. (2009). Improving Student Achievement. A practical guide to Assessment for Learning. Curriculum Corporation, Victoria, Australia. * Hong Kong Assessment and Examination Authority (HKEAA). Introduction to School-Based Assessment. Retrieved February 3, 2013, from http://www. hkeaa. edu. hk/en/SBA/ * Hong Kong Assessment and Examination Authority (HKEAA), http://www. hkeaa. edu. hk/en/SBA/ * Jim Tognolini (2007). Standards-based assessment: a tool and means to the development of human capital and capacity building in education. Australian Journal of Education, Vol. 51, No. 2, 2007, 129-145 * Phelps, Richard P. , Standardized Testing Primer. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2007) How to cite School Based Assessment for Learning, Essay examples

Friday, May 1, 2020

Corporate Financial Management and Superannuation Contribution

Question: Discuss about the Corporate Financial Management Superannuation Contribution. Answer: Superannuation Contribution Superannuation contribution is the contribution provided by the employee, as well as the employee that strives to provide help to the employee after their retirement. This is done by way of deduction of a prescribed sum from the salary or personal contributions are provided. In the normal scenario, the contribution is done by way of deduction from the salary as it lessens the employees taxable income and reduces the payment of tax (Damodaran, 2012). The later life of the employees demands a balanced and comfortable life, and the best answer for that is investing and saving in policies providing with retirement benefits which are very actively promoted b y each and every country. The amount being invested under the superannuation contributions is increasing every year as a result of the governments regulations which strictly bind an employee to make such investments, which will result as a boon to the employees at the time of retirement. It is the duty of the financial institutions de aling with such investments to earn positive results in the form of returns from them as to highlight the agenda and most importantly to keep up the cause of the superannuation contributions (Graham Smart, 2012). Availability of the cash is the most important necessity of company with which the deal for superannuation contributions is tied so a lot of facts and figures have to keep in mind by the fund managers for keeping the money ready for an employee after retirement. However, it forms a prominent part of the organization as it deals with the benefit of the employee. Primary, secondary and tertiary are namely the three sectors into which the whole economic sector is divided. These are the most relevant sectors. Any occurrence of root level is first identified by the tertiary employees first, so it becomes a duty of this sector to help out the other sectors by sharing its productivity and wisdom (Melville, 2013). To guarantee a positive retirement to the employees the government came out with the idea of compulsory contributions to be made by the employees, which had a rate of 3 percent which was later revised and reestablished to 5 percent by the government in the year 2005. This idea of superannuation contributions has proved to be a boon for the investors and also to the state by decreasing the burden of social security because it includes a systematic management of allocations and funding (Ferris et. al, 2010). It is also necessary and a matter to be paid attention that to which return providing sector the money has been invested. Saving recor ded over the entire year of employment is actually the returns earned from such superannuation funds. It should also be kept in mind that the sum paid to the employee during the time of retirement should be enough and it highlights that there should be the availability of cash and more important factor are discussed below. Defined Benefit Plan and Investment Choice Plan Defined Benefit Plan and Investment Choice Plan are the two main parts into which the superannuation plans are classified. Unisuper Limited is a company providing offers and services to the employees of the third sector. It is one of the biggest and a superannuation based company. It can be considered as a revolution in the industry of superannuation contributions that the employees are free to choose the type of investments they want to make, opting for a retirement option that suits them among various offers, enhanced and integrated flexibility in choosing the correct type of assets for investment in the superannuation funds contributions (Guerard, 2013). For the employees who belong to the tertiary sector and adhere to the Defined benefit plan, the contributions to superannuation are combined and invested in a portfolio of assets that is controlled by the trustees of the fund. The final advantage is determined by the formula that is the performance of the assets divided by the por tfolio of investment. However, the risk of investment does not relate to the employee as the entire responsibility is taken by the fund managers. These strikes a notion that the employee does not benefit from the gain earn by the portfolio that exceeds the requirement to meet the targets and hence, fund trustees should have a flair for investment and utilizing the benefits garnered through such assets. A brief description of all the features of all types of funds is highlighted below. Age of the employee, last drawn salary, the number of years of service, etc is the details which are taken into account while paying the amount at the end of retirement to the respective employee, as per the rules of the Defined Benefits Plan. In the case of this type of investment, the final amount is decided by a simple formula and is not affected by the portfolio returns and is not considered by the investor, but is to be view by the managers and trustees so as to guarantee that sufficient amount is available for payment of the employee (Marsh, 2009). (DB, 2017) In the case of the second type that is Investment Choice Superannuation Fund, all the amount at the end of the year including the return from portfolios are stored in an accumulating account and the management expenses are also dealt with the same account. This type of investment requires strategies and the employees are more prone towards suffering superannuation contribution risks (Northington, 2011). Factors that needs to be considered There is a marked difference between Defined Benefit Plan and Investment Choice Plan. Under the terms set up by Defined Benefit Plan an employee gets a fixed sum after retirement and the fixed sum is not at all affected by the changing returns, on the contrary that means under the Investment Choice Plan, the investors should have faith in their own analysis and also the analysis made by the company regarding the fluctuations of the returns to get higher returns. It is important to have a confident nature and an appetite for risk for the employees investing under Investment Choice Plan (Parrino et. al, 2012). The Defined Benefit Plan is designated as a much safer option for the employees with respect to the Investment Choice Plan. As per Vaitilingam (2010) it is totally in the hands of the investor to invest the money in such a plan that suits the employee. If the employee is skillful and keeps through knowledge about the rates and returns going on in the market and is capable enough to set up strategies then the one can opt for Investment Choice Plan. While the ones who are not ready to suffer any losses and are not capable enough to skillfully manage their own investments can choose Defined Benefit Plan and can designate their investment to reputed institutions to handle their money and to prevent any future losses (Matt Simon, 2014). If the employee is prone to some additional work generating assets then they can opt for Investment Choice Plan, the ones not having any additional assets should go on with Defined Benefit Plan. Value and Concept of Money consideration Future cash flows and the future values of the investments being made are generally and most importantly put under consideration of Time Value of Money. Considering the case of investments there is always some opportunity cost involved in it. It should be clearly understood that a certain amount of money like for example $50,000 is not at all going to be the same one at the time of retirement, it is possible that it can get depreciated so it is an important matter to consider all the factors for making decisions for investments (Brigham Daves, 2012). On the other hand, it should be kept it mind that chosen investment should grow as per the rate of return in the market because money grows with time. It is also the duty of the employee to understand the importance of time value of money and to choose the investment pattern wisely. This is due to the fact that the time value of money comes into consideration and the same money at the present scenario will have a different value after a period of time or in the near future. They should be thoroughly informed of the performance of the portfolio for the past years and should also take the advice of the experts in regard to such matters (Brealey et. al, 2011). It is vital for the employees to understand the future value of the currently invested amount and to make proper decisions as the contributions are life times earning. However, it needs to be noted that the selection of the plan whether defined retirement plans or investment choice plans depends entirely upon the risk taking the ability of the employee. The risk appetite depends on various factors such as salary earned, the age of the employee, working years left, promotions, etc. Hence, it is recommended that the employee must go for the plan that suits the profile and strengthens the savings. Moreover, it should not be done at a high level of risk rather risk and return must be equally blended. Efficient Market Hypothesis The efficient market hypothesis is assumed to be perfect. The reason being it inculcates all the available market information and the reactions of the market to calculate the most efficient stock price. However, there are many factors which prove that this hypothesis is not correct. The investors have an unpredictable psychology and they always do not show the correct price level (Bodie et. al, 2014). Also, the markets always do not behave rationally so it is only a myth that the markets show the fair price. If one assumes that the stock markets are performing in a proper manner then it is believed to be in line with random walk theory (Berk et.al, 2015). However, in real life, the investors are mostly rational however the uncertainty lies in the situations and the events. As there are various shortcomings as mentioned above it does not gets easy for the fund managers to select a portfolio at a time. There are several reasons for the same. A fund manager has always a defined benchmark of meeting certain risk and return goals. However, the stock market has always proved that anticipated, unanticipated and the expected risks of the portfolio cannot be controlled. As each and every stock is different with respect to the capital structure, financial potential, volatility, market competition, etc. hence the market will not suit the requirements of all the stocks. The market size for the stocks of smaller companies is relatively lower if compared to those of higher companies. The portfolio might be open to risks which do not yield rewards as it might not have been designed properly. Hence individual investors might face huge risks in respect of such portfolios (Ross et. al, 2014). As there are inherent limitations to statistical analysis, so it is a mere coi ncidence that the market performance is in line with the efficient market hypothesis. It might not be considered as a risky venture to resort to efficient market hypothesis when the investors have their major investment in riskless assets which are already yielding higher rewards otherwise such portfolios do have a high beta depending upon individuals risk preferences. One should select the portfolio based on perfect calculation and following a proper system. It has been proved that the markets have no memory and also that it is not easy to make money out of the stock markets (Arnold, 2010). Also, there are different types of risks involved in the case of long-term interest rates as compared to short-term interest rates. After discussing the various factors it is very clear that one cannot select a portfolio with great ease. There are various significant jobs which the fund managers are required to perform in order to select a perfect portfolio. The portfolio should be designed in such a manner that the advantage of special tax laws and the pension funds can be taken. If such options are provided then it becomes easier to increase the returns of the portfolio and that too without increasing the risk. Although a large number of stocks in the portfolio do not ensure proper diversification however the fund manager must ensure a diversified portfolio. 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Guerard, J. 2013,Introduction to financial forecasting in investment analysis, New York, NY: Springer. Marsh, C 2009, Mastering financial management, Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall. Matt B Simon P 2014, Accounting and Finance For Managers, Kogan Page Limited Melville, A 2013, International Financial Reporting A Practical Guide, 4th edition, Pearson, Education Limited, UK Northington, S 2011, Finance, New York, NY: Ferguson's. Parrino, R, Kidwell, D. Bates, T 2012, Fundamentals of corporate finance, Hoboken Ross, S, Christensen, M, Drew, M Bianchi, R., Westerfield, R Jordan, B, 2014, Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 7th ed. North Ryde: McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. Vaitilingam, R 2010, The Financial Times Guide to Using the Financial Pages, London: FT Prentice Hall.